Arduino is an open source microprocessor that has exploded around the world.  In enables you to program inputs and outputs and control devices.  

Beginning Labs

These Labs are intended for people just starting out and have detailed instructions 

Arduino Getting Started – An introduction
Arduino Lab #1 – Blink LED/RGB LED
Arduino Lab #2 – 5 LED Sequence/Call Function
Arduino Lab #3 – If statements and Variables
Arduino Lab #4 – Servo Motor
Arduino Lab #5 – LCD Screen

Motor Control Labs

Stepper Motor Control
ULN2003 Stepper Motor Control Unipolar (500Ma Maximum)
A4988 Stepper Motor Control (1 Amp Maximum)
L298N Stepper Motor Control (2 Amps Maximum)

DC Motor Control Labs
L293/SN754410 (1 Amp Maximum)
L298N (2 Amps Maximum)
BTS7960B (43 Amps Maximum)